According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) 168 million children are still involved in child labor. Child labor has been a key area for Fafo's international research for many years. A number of the institutes' academic staff has been involved in the studies produced.
Fafo's research has predominantly taken place in Africa, focusing on areas such as child domestic labor, agricultural child labor and child soldiering.
Fafo also studies the economic activities of street child populations, and extensive surveys of the labor migrations and trafficking of children have been conducted in a number of countries.
Fafo served as verifying agency for the industry efforts to curb child labor in the coco sector in West Africa through certification, following the Harkin Bill.
Currently, Fafo is involved in a major survey on child domestic labor in Haiti.