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Industrial relations

Social dialogue

Social dialogue is central to the Norwegian model. The social dialogue lay down the foundation for both representative and individual arrangements aimed at employee participation. Both social parties have rights and obligations, and the social dialogue is based on joint responsibility for a just and productive work life.

Social dialogue, which is taking place within thousands of workplaces, is the manifestation of the work life. Social dialogue is a main field of research at Fafo, and there are a number of intersections to other fields of research. Social dialogue is studied from various angles: institutional theory; industrial relations; power relations and democracy theory, organizational theory and labour law. We employ a wide range of research methods - including registry data and own surveys, and interviews and observation.


  • Rose, C. & Hagen, I. M. (2019). The perceived influence of employee board members on decisions in Denmark and Norway. European Journal of Industrial Relations.

  • Hagen, I. M. (2018). Norwegian Board-Level Employee Representatives: Still in a Prominent Position? Chapter 6 in J. Waddington (ed.), European Board-Level Employee Representation: National Variations in Influence and Power. Kluwer Law International.

  • Hagen, I. M. & Jensen, R. S. (2018). Trade union representatives from ethnic minorities. Representation revisited. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research. SAGE Publishing.

  • Hagen, I. M. & Svarstad, E. (2018). 15 år med anbefaling for eierstyring og selskapsledelse – fortsatt aktive direktører og passive styrer? Magma 5/2018.

  • Hagen, I. M (2017). Flere styrer – færre ansattevalgte styremedlemmer. Søkelys på arbeidslivet 04 / 2017 (Volum 34).

  • Hagen, I. M. & Mulder, B. J. (2014). Transnational Employee Representation on Company Board: the Scandinavian Model. I E. Ales & I. Senatori (eds.), Transnational Dimension of Labour Relations, A New Order in the Making? Torino: G. Gippichelli Editore.

  • Hagen, I. M. (2014). Board-Level Employee Representatives in Norway, Sweden and Denmark: Differently Powerless or Equally Important? I M. Hauptmeier & M. Vidal (eds.), Comparative Political Economy of Work. Critical Perspectives on Work and Employment. Palgrave Macmillan.

  • Svalund, J., Casinowsky, G. B. et al. (2013). Stress testing the Nordic models: Manufacturing labour adjustments during crisis. European Journal of Industrial Relations, 19(3), 183-200.

  • Svalund, J. (2013). Adjusting labour through crisis: A three industry comparison. Economic and Industrial Democracy: first published online October 9, 2013

  • Svalund, J. & Kervinen, H. (2013). Trade union power during labour adjustments – comparison of company-level cases. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 19(4), 489-505.

  • Trygstad, S. C. (2013), Deltakelse og innflytelse i norskeide og utenlandskeide virksomheter. Søkelys på arbeidslivet. Vol. 30, nr. 1-2, 2013

  • Hagen, I. M. (2011). Medarbejdervalgte medlemmer av bestyrelsen – hvorfor benytter ikke alltid de ansatte deres rettigheter? Tidsskrift for Arbejdsliv, 13(1). 

  • Hagen, I. M. (2011). Sustainable decisions and social dialogue – some significant developments in Norway. European Company Law, 8(2/3).

  • Hagen, I. M. (2011). Employee elected directors on company boards: Stakeholder representatives or the voice of labour? Bulletin of Comparative Labour Relations, 77. (Special issue: Rethinking Corporate Governance). Kluwer Law International.

  • Huse, M., Nielsen, S. & Hagen, I. M. (2009). Women and Employee-Elected Board Members, and Their Contributions to Board Control Tasks. Journal of Business Ethics, 18.

  • Hagen, I. M. (2008). Ansattes styrerepresentanter – hvor mange og hvor finner vi dem? Søkelys på arbeidslivet, 3/2008. Oslo: ISF.

  • Hagen, I. M. & Huse, M. (2007). Employee directors – Examples from Norway. In U. Jürgens et al. (eds.), Perspektiven der Corporate Governance: bestimmungsfaktoren unternehmerischer Entscheidungsprozesse und Mitwirkung der Arbeitnehmer. Baden-baden: Nomos. 

  • Hernes, G., Grimsrud, B. & Hippe, J. M. (2006). Samarbeid for utvikling. Partssamarbeid, sosial kapital og utvikling av bedrifter og virksomheter. Rapport til HF - hovedorganisasjonenes fellestiltak.

  • Løken, E., S.C. Trygstad og T. Lorentzen (2005). Den nye staten: Omfang og effekter av omstillingene i staten 1990–2004. Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, 2

  • Engelstad, F., Storvik, A. E., Svalund, J. & Hagen, I. M. (2003). Makt og demokrati i arbeidslivet. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk (Makt- og demokratiutredningen).

  • Trygstad, S. (2003), "Utviklingskommunen – nye betingelser for ansattes medvirkning og innflytelse?" I Finstad, N og Aarsæther, N (2003): Utviklingskommunen. Oslo, Kommuneforlaget

  • Hagen, I. M. (2002). Ansattes styrerepresentanter. Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, 1/2002. Oslo: ISF.

  • Bråten, M., Dølvik, J. E., Longva, F. & Steen, A. H. (1997). Norwegian Labour Market Institutions and Regulations. I J. E. Dølvik & A. H. Steen (red.), Making Solidarity Work? The Norwegian Labour Market Model in Transition. Universitetsforlaget.

  • Arrowsmith, J., Nicolaisen, H., Bechter, B. & Nonell, R. (2008). The Management of Variable Pay in Banking: Forms and Rationales in Four European Countries. In R. Blanpain & L. Dickens (eds.), Challenges of European Employment Relations: Employment Regulation; Trade Union Organization; Equality, Flexicurity, Training and New Approaches to Pay. (Bulletin of Comparative Labour Relations). Kluwer Law International.



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