The platform economy has frequently been featured in media in recent years. The platforms position themselves as intermediaries that connect service providers with customers. The services vary from small jobs, such as transport or cleaning, to rent of assets such as homes or cars. Instead of every single individual creating his/her own marketplace from scratch, the platforms offer a marketplace that providers and customers can make use of. Our research focuses on platforms that intermediate work, and the type of jobs and forms of employment that emerges with the platform economy.
The work conducted by providers in the platform economy is characterized by a workload and working time that varies according to demand. With the platform economy, a triangular relationship is established between platform and provider, customer and provider, and platform and customer. In cases where the provider is a person without a company, the question arises whether the platform (or the customer) in reality is an employer. An assessment of this relationship depends on a judicial evaluation of each case. Whether the platforms legally are employers or not, is disputed. Several of the platforms consider themselves as technology companies that only intermediate a service between two parties without hiring those who work via the platforms. Many of the institutions in working life – cooperation between the social partners, labor laws and collective agreements, social security schemes and health, environment and security regulations are built around the relationship between an employer and an employee. Triangular relationships are not new in working life. Variants can be found in temporary employment agencies, subcontracting and consultancy. However, it is important to study what forms of employment that are created in light of new technology and new business models. The topic is part of broader trends in working life such as digitalization, outsourcing and new forms of employment.
Jørgen Ingerød Steen, Johan Røed Steen, Kristin Jesnes and Rolf RøtnesThe Knowledge-intensive Platform Economy in the Nordic Countries
Kristin Alsos, Kristin Jesnes og Beate Sletvold ØistadNår sjefen er en app – delingsøkonomi i et arbeidsperspektiv