How immigrants and their descendants adapt to the dual earner family model of Scandinavian welfare states is a topic of considerable interest. While earlier studies have addressed this issue in terms of economic integration, expanding our understanding of how cultural adaptation underpins these processes is vital. This study aims to identify patterns and dynamics shaping attitudes towards mothers' employment in Norway. The analysis draws on a survey including immigrants from Pakistan, Iran, Iraq and Vietnam, as well as descendants of Pakistani immigrants and a Norwegian control group. Survey data are linked with public register data. The analysis suggests both cultural persistence and adaptation; among immigrants, country of origin is a strong predictor of attitudes, whereas years of residence in the host country is of limited importance. While I find little evidence of a gradual process of adaptation over time, the analysis shows that both economic and linguistic integration is related to more positive attitudes to mothers' employment. Pakistani descendants express stronger support for mothers' employment than immigrants from Pakistan. Although Pakistani descendants are still less supportive of mothers' employment compared to the Norwegian control group, this suggest a significant degree of adaptation from one generation to the next.
Kavli, Hanne C. (2015): Adapting to the Dual Earner Family Norm? The Case of Immigrants and Immigrant Descendants in Norway. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(5).