Wages and working conditions may be regulated by statutory law and collective agreements and employment contracts. Collective agreements are agreements between a trade union and an employer organisation or an individual employer. In a Norwegian context, such agreements usually consist of two parts: A basic agreement that governs the relationship between organisations and predominant rules, and a national agreement regulating wages and working conditions for a certain industry or a sector.
A collective agreement is applicable within a limited part of the labour market, such as within an industry, a profession or a sector. Agreements are valid only within companies where they have been applied. However, many companies who are not bound by a collective agreement practice parts of collective agreements on a voluntary basis. The collective agreements can also be made generally applicable, and thus be given effect for companies other than those who are bound by them.
The Work Environment Act and the collective agreements play together in different ways. Firstly, legislation may have regulations that can be waived by a collective agreement. Secondly, collective agreements may provide superior rights for employees than the law stipulates. Finally, collective agreements regulate topics that are not regulated by the Work Environment Act, such as payment for unsociable working hours.
The relationship between the Working Environment Act and collective agreements, the scope and development of collective agreements, and industrial disputes and conflict resolution, constitute key research areas at Fafo.
Elin Svarstad & Ragnar NymoenWage inequality and union membership at the establishment level: An econometric study using Norwegian data Oxford Economic Papers , 2022
Anders Kjellberg & Kristine NergaardUnion Density in Norway and Sweden: Stability versus Decline Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies , 2022
Laust Høgedahl Aalborg, Kristine Nergaard & Kristin AlsosTrade Unions in the Nordic Labor Market Models – Signs of Erosion? Introduction to the Special Issue Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies , 2022
Elin Svarstad & Fredrik B. KostølUnions, collective agreements and productivity
Camilla Houeland, David C. Jordhus-Lier & Frida Hambro AngellSolidarity tested: The case of the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (LO‐Norway) and its contradictory climate change policies Area , 2021
Kristin Jesnes, Denis Neumann, Vera Trappmann & Pauline de BecdelièvreThe role of worker collectives among app-based food delivery couriers in France, Germany and Norway: All the same or different? , 2021
Kristine Nergaard & Elin SvarstadFagorganisering blant unge nyansatte – hva betyr «et kollektivt trykk»? , 2021
Paul Marginson and Jon Erik DølvikNorthern European Collective Wage Bargaining in the Face of Major Political-Economic Challenges: Common and Differing Trajectories Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research , 2020
Inger Marie Hagen & Ragnhild Steen JensenTrade union representatives from ethnic minorities. Representation revisited , 2018
Jon Erik Dølvik & Paul MarginsonCross-sectoral coordination and regulation of wage determination in northern Europe
Jens Arnholtz, Guglielmo Meardi, Johannes OldervollCollective wage bargaining under strain in northern European construction
Dølvik, J. E., Marginson, P., Alsos, K., Arnholtz, J., Meardi, G., Müller, T. & Trygstad, S.Collective wage regulation in northern Europe under strain
Torsten Müller, Jon Erik Dølvik, Christian Ibsen, Thorsten SchultenThe manufacturing sector: Still an anchor for pattern bargaining within and across countries? , 2018
Hansen, Nana Wesley and Åsmund Arup SeipGovernment employers in Sweden, Denmark and Norway European Journal of Industrial Relations , 2017
Åsmund Arup Seip, Kristin Alsos & Pål NygaardI arbeidsfredens tjeneste. Arbeidsretten gjennom 100 år , 2016
Jens Arnholtz & Line EldringVarying perceptions of social dumping in similar countries , 2015 Market expansion and social dumping in Europe.
Kristine Nergaard, E. Barth & H. Dale-OlsenOrganisasjonsgraden på arbeidstakersiden – hvordan påvirkes denne av endringene i arbeidslivet? , 2015
Line EldringLovbasert minstelønnsregulering: Løsning eller forbannelse? Europarättslig tidsskrift , 2015
Kristine Nergaard, Erling Barth og Harald Dale-OlsenLavere organisasjonsgrad, et spørsmål om nykommere? , 2015
Jon Erik Dølvik, Line Eldring and Jelle VisserSetting Wage Floors in Open Markets
Svalund, J.Adjusting labour through crisis: A three industry comparison Economic and Industrial Democracy , 2013
Svalund, J. and H. KervinenTrade union power during labour adjustments – comparison of company-level cases Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research , 2013
Svalund, J., G. B. Casinowsky, Dølvik, J. E. Håkansson, K,Jarvensivu, A., Kervinen, H., Møberg, R. J., Piirainen, T.Stress testing the Nordic models: Manufacturing labour adjustments during crisis European Journal of Industrial Relations , 2013
Line Eldring & Thorsten SchultenMigrant workers and wage-setting institutions: Experiences from Germany, Norway, Switzerland and the UK , 2012
Kristin Alsos og Line EldringLabour mobility and wage dumping: The case of Norway European Journal of Industrial Relations , 2008
Mona Bråten og Jon Erik DølvikNorge: Nasjonal krise og internasjonal vekst - utfordringer for fagorganisasjonene , 2003 I: P. Blomqvist & S. Murhem Fackliga strategier för at möta globalisering och regionalisering innom metallindustrin
Andreas Benedictow, Bjorn Dapi, Fernanda Winger Eggen, Hege Marie Gjefsen, Anders Kjelsrud, Jonas Måøy, Maja Tofteng og Elin SvarstadEvaluering av ordningen med allmenngjøring av tariffavtaler , 2021
Kristine NergaardTrade Unions in Norway
Elin SvarstadLønn og lønnsforskjeller blant siviløkonomer og sivilingeniører i privat sektor
T. Schulten, T. Müller & L. EldringProspects and obstacles of a European minimum wage policy , 2015
Line Eldring and Kristin AlsosStatutory minimum wage regulation in Europe. A necessary evil? , 2015
T. MidtsundstadHvor mange har rett til å gå av med AFP? Trygd & Pensjon (tidl. Skattebetaleren) , 2004